Vindolanda Tablets Online Tablets Exhibition Reference Help

Links and Further Reading

'Ancient documents' lists links to other types of ancient documents online, such as inscriptions and papyri. 'Roman Britain and its northern frontiers' lists links on topics related to the archaeological site at Vindolanda, Roman Britain's northern frontier and the province in general and gives a small set of links to the wider Roman world. 'Reference' lists links to sites that include further information on the topics covered in the 'reference' section, for example names, dates, and currency. Resources listed in these links were available online in August 2002. 'Minimus' provides details of Minimus, an introductory Latin course for 7-10 year olds, based on the contents of the Vindolanda tablets. The links represent only a small selection from material available online. Gateways to subject areas and fuller sets of links are also signposted. Suggestions for further reading on similar topics are also given.



The links listed below represent a small selection of the material available online. Gateways to subject areas and sites providing fuller sets of links are signposted. Suggestions for introductory reading are also given.

Ancient Documents

Roman Britain and its northern frontiers

'Reference' (names, dates, currencyÖ)


Further reading


Ancient documents

The links listed below introduce some of the other categories of documents from the ancient world, both from individual sites and from museum and library collections. For a large collection of links to papyri and inscription online, pleae refer to the CSAD links page.

Inscriptions on stone


Military diplomas

Graffiti and stamps on pottery, amphorae and bricks

Curse tablets and magical papyri


Inscriptions on stone

Hunterian Museum (Virtual tour of museum collection includes texts and spoken versions of inscriptions).

Lacus Curtius (includes an introduction to Latin epigraphy)

Noctes Gallicanae (introduction to epigraphy with many examples) (French)

Pyrrha (introduction to funerary inscriptions)

Roman Inscriptions of Britain (texts only, plus a brief guide to reading inscriptions)

R?mische Inschriften in Germanien (includes an illustrated introduction to Latin inscriptions (section 4 - German))



The Dead Sea Scrolls and Qumran (images of the scrolls and artefacts from the site)

The Duke Papyrus Archive ('Browse the archive')

The Michigan papyri 'Snapshots of daily life'

University of Michigan - 'From Papyri to King James: The Transmission of the English Bible' (follow the link to events and exhibits)

The Oxyrhynchus papyrus collection (an online exhibition)

D. Binder's introduction to papyrology


Military diplomas

Roman Numismatic Gallery (follow link to diplomas)

Slavonski Brod diploma (a well preserved example)


Graffiti and stamps on pottery, amphorae and bricks

Roman Numismatic Gallery (follow link to brick stamps)

Monte Testaccio (stamps and graffiti on olive oil amphorae found in Rome; page VI, 'De vertedero a archivo') (Spanish)


Curse tablets and magical papyri

University of Michigan - 'Traditions of Magic in Late Antiquity' (follow the link to events and exhibits)


Roman Britain and its northern frontiers

The links listed here represent a small subset of the online resources available for Roman Britain, selected either because they are directly relevant to the theme of the Vindolanda website or because they provide substantial resources for the study of the province. Among the sites listed are virtual museum displays, on-line articles and books and reports on archaeological fieldwork. The notes briefly indicate the contents of the different sites. A brief list of general sites for the study of the Roman world is also available at the end of this page.

Many relevant resources can be found on the web pages of museums, universities, national archaeological bodies and local and authorities (CBA), television programmes, for example 'Meet the Ancestors' and 'Time Team', individual enthusiasts and guides to visiting Cumbria, Hadrian's Wall and Roman Britain.


The Archaeological Site at Vindolanda

The Roman frontier and the Roman army - general

The Roman frontier and the Roman army- sites and online museum collections

Roman Britain - general

Roman Britain - sites and themes

Life in Roman Britain - links for teaching

The Roman World


The Archaeological Site at Vindolanda

Vindolanda Trust (home page for the archaeological site, includes regular updates of recent excavations)

BBC History (aspects of military life at Vindolanda)


The Roman frontier and the Roman army - general

Britannia (a gazetteer of Roman military sites in Britain, including glossary, reconstruction drawings and photographs)

BBC (general guide to Hadrian's Wall)

Gask Ridge (interim report on archaeological project on the Gask Ridge)

Hadrian's Wall (well-illustrated description of Roman Britain's northern frontiers and their history)

Roman army units in Britain (based on RIB)

Wallnet (Newcastle University Museum of Antiquities, follow the links to Wallnet from home page)


The Roman frontier and the Roman army- sites and online museum collections

Carrawburgh Mithraeum (a tour of the virtual version of the temple of Mithras from the fort at Carrawburgh)

Chester-le-Street (excavations of the fort)

Chester (reconstructions of buildings and defences)

Chester (excavation of amphitheatre)

Housesteads (3D reconstruction, requires Cosmo Player 2.1)

Trimontium / Newstead (excavation report )

York (brief axccount of York's Roman history)

Wroxeter (virtual tour of Roman fortress, requires Viscape )


Roman Britain - general

Archaeology Data Service (ADS) (includes CBA Research Reports on-line, reports and archives from archaeological fieldwork on Roman sites in Britain)

BBC (several resources on Roman Britain, including Hadrian's Wall and mosaics)

British Museum (the searchable Compass database includes images and descriptions of many objects from Roman Britain)

Council for British Archaeology (CBA- the fullest and most regularly updated set of links for British archaeology)

English Heritage (news and reports on archaeological projects in Britain, including Roman sites)

Internet Archaeology (scholarly journal: several issues include articles on Roman Britain)

Lacus Curtius (comprehensive listing of websites on Roman Britain)

Portable Antiquities Scheme (a searchable database of artefacts found by members of the public and reported to museums. The database includes many Roman items)

Roman Finds Group (reports on recent discoveries of well-preserved or unusual Roman artefacts)

Romans in Sussex (a very comprehensive resource presenting Roman life and culture in Sussex)


Roman Britain - sites and themes

Armamentarium (follow the links from the Newcastle University Museum of Antiquities home page to this resource on Roman arms and armour)

ASPROM (Romano-British mosaics)

Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle (Roman items in collection accessible via search of the archaeology pages)

Hunterian Museum (a virtual exhibition)

Werkzeug (tools and craft technology in the Roman provinces) (German)

Roman Baths in Britain

Silchester Roman Town - The Insula IX Town Life Project(report on Reading University excavations)

Guy de la Bedoy?re (introductions to aspects of Romano-British archaeology)


Life in Roman Britain - links for teaching


Canterbury Archaeological Trust (Roman (and Anglo-Saxon) Canterbury)

Pyrrha (introduction to aspects of Roman culture, including art, inscriptions and literature)

Reticulum - Museum of Antiquities, University of Newcastle upon Tyne (thematic guiide to the frontier)

Romans in Sussex (a resource designed for different levels of the National Curriculum in England and Wales and for continuing education students)

Roman Wroxeter (virtual fortress, requires Viscape plug-in)

Vroma (introduction to aspects of Roman life in 'Civilisation and Culture')

Wallnet (individual sites on Hadrian's Wall)


The Roman World

The sites listed here are sets of links and gateways to Roman history, archaeology and art. Some also provide substantial resources in their own right.

Argos (links for ancient and medieval worlds)

De Imperatoribus Romanis (on-line encyclopedia on Roman emperors)

Diotima (resources for the study of women and gender in the ancient world)

Humbul (links for classics and archaeology)

Interactive Ancient Mediterranean (maps of ancient world)

Internet Resources for Classics

Lacus Curtius (links and resources for Roman history and archaeology)

Romarch (links for Roman archaeology)


'Reference' (names, dates, currencyÖ)

The 'Reference' section of 'Vindolanda Tablets Online' provides more detailed information on some of the specific aspects of the tablets' content, including names, military units and ranks, dates, coinage and units of weight and measurements. These links provide more detailed introductions to these topics.

Vroma (follow teaching resources - History and Culture - Rome: Republic to Empire)

Silver Muse (follow the relevant links through the index to contents - reference and teaching materials)

Roman calendar

Virtual catalogue of Roman coins

Roman Numismatic Gallery

Bearers of meaning: the Ottilia Buerger coin collection at Lawrence University



Minimus Minimus: Starting out in Latin - a course for 7-10 year olds, introducing the Latin language and the culture of Roman Britain, illustrated by comic strips and stories. The course is based on Flavius Cerialis, commander of one of the garrions at Vindolanda, his wife Lepidina and their children, their cat Vibrissa and Minimus the mouse.


Further Reading

The Vindolanda tablets

Other documents from Roman Britain

Literacy and documents in the Roman world

Vindolanda - history and archaeology

Hadrian's Wall and Britain's northern frontiers

The Roman army in Britain

Roman Britain


The Vindolanda tablets

Adams, J. 1995. 'The Latin of the Vindolanda Tablets: an interim report', Journal of Roman Studies, 85, 86-134. (Users at academic institutions participating in the JSTOR project can also access this article online)

Bowman, A. K. 1994. Life and letters on the northern frontier, British Museum Press (rev. ed. 1998)

Bowman, A. K. and Thomas, J. D. 1983. Vindolanda. The Latin Writing Tablets, Britannia Monographs 4, Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies

Bowman, A. K. and Thomas, J. D. 1994. The Vindolanda Writing Tablets (Tabulae Vindolandenses II), British Museum Press

Bowman, A. K. and Thomas, J. D. 1996. 'New writing tablets from Vindolanda', Britannia 27: 299-328


Other documents from Roman Britain

Collingwood, R. G. and Wright, R. P. 1995.The Roman Inscriptions of Britain. Volume I,; Inscriptions on stone (new ed.), Stroud: Published for the Administrators of the Haverfield Bequest by Alan Sutton

Frere, S. S. et al. 1990-1995. The Roman inscriptions of Britain. Volume II, Fascicules 1-8, Instrumentum domesticum, Gloucester : Alan Sutton (collects other documents, for example stamps and graffiti on pottery, building materials and metal artefacts, military diplomas, and wooden writing tablets)

Tomlin, R.S.O. 1988. 'The curse tablets', in Cunliffe, B. The temple of Sulis Minerva at Bath Vol. 2. The finds from the sacred spring, Oxford: OUCA, 59-280

Tomlin, R.S.O. 1993. 'The inscribed lead tablets', in Woodward, A. and Leach, P. The Uley Shrines. Excavation of a ritual complex on West Hill, Uley, Gloucestershire, 1977-79, London: English Heritage, 113-26

Tomlin, R.S.O. 1998. 'Roman manuscripts from Carlisle: the ink-written tablets', Britannia, 29, 31-84


Literacy and documents in the Roman world

Bowman, A. and Woolf, G., eds. Literacy and Power in the Ancient World, Cambridge: CUP

Harris, W. 1989. Ancient Literacy, Cambridge MA / London: Harvard University Press

Humphrey, J.H. ed. 1991. Literacy in the Roman World, Ann Arbor, MI: Journal of Roman Archaeology

Keppie, L. J. F. 1991. Understanding Roman Inscriptions, Batsford: London

Lalou, E. ed 1992. Les tablettes ? ?crire de l'antiquit? ? l'?poque moderne, Turnhout: Brepols

Small, J. P. 1997. Wax tablets of the mind: cognitive studies of memory and literacy in classical antiquity, London: Routledge

Woolf, G. 2000. 'Literacy', in A. Bowman, P. Garnsey and D. Rathbone eds, The Cambridge Ancient History (2nd edition). Volume XI. The High Empire, A.D. 70-192, 875-897, Cambridge: CUP


Vindolanda - history and archaeology

Birley, A. 2002. Garrison Life at Vindolanda. A Band of Brothers, Stroud: Tempus

Birley, E. et al. 1993. The Early Wooden Forts: Reports on the Auxiliaries, the Writing Tablets, Inscriptions, Brands and Graffiti. Vindolanda Research Reports 2, Roman Army Museum Publications

Birley, R. 1994. The Early Wooden Forts. Introduction and analysis of the structures, Vindolanda Research Reports 1, Roman Army Museum Publications

Birley, R. et al., 1998-2002. Interim reports, excavations 1997-2001, Roman Army Museum.

van Driel-Murray, C. 1993. The Early Wooden Forts: preliminary reports on the leather, textiles, environmental evidence and dendrochronology. Vindolanda Research Reports 3, Roman Army Museum Publications


Hadrian's Wall and Britain's northern frontiers

Bidwell, P. 1999. Hadrian's Wall 1989-1999, Carlisle: CWAAS / Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne

Breeze, D. J. 1996. Roman Scotland. Frontier Country, London: Historic Scotland / Batsford

Breeze, D. and Dobson, B. 2000. Hadrian's Wall (4th edition), Harmondsworth: Penguin

Collingwood Bruce, J. 1978. Handbook of the Roman Wall (ed. C M Daniels), Newcastle: Hill

Daniels, C. M. 1989. The 11th Pilgrimage of Hadrian's Wall 26th August-1st September 1989, Newcastle: Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne

Hanson, W.S. and Maxwell, G. 1985. Rome's North-West frontier, the Antonine Wall, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press

Johnson, S. 1989. Hadrian's Wall, London: Batsford / English Heritage

Salway, P. 1965. The Frontier People of Roman Britain, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Shotter, D. C. A. 1996. The Roman Frontier in Britain: Hadrian's Wall, the Antonine Wall and Roman Policy in the North, Preston: Carnegie


The Roman army in Britain

Bidwell, P. 1997. Roman Forts in Britain, London: Batsford

Breeze, D. J. 1983. Roman forts in Britain, Aylesbury: Shire

Hanson, W. S. 1987. Agricola and the conquest of the north, London: Batsford

Johnson, A. 1983. Roman Forts of the 1st and 2nd centuries AD in Britain and the German Provinces, London: Black

Webster, G. 1985. The Roman imperial army (3rd ed.), London: Black

Welfare, H. and Swan, V. 1995. Roman Camps in England. The Field Archaeology, RCHME


Roman Britain

Frere, S. S. 1987. Britannia (3rd. ed.), Oxford: Routledge

Millett, M. 1990. The Romanization of Britain, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Millett, M. 1995. Roman Britain, London: Batsford

Salway, P. 1993. The Oxford illustrated history of Roman Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Salway, P. 1998. Roman Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Salway, P. ed. 2002. The Roman era: the British Isles, 55 BC-AD 410, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Todd, M. 1997. Roman Britain 55B.C.-A.D.400: the province beyond ocean (2nd ed.), London: Fontana

Top of page